The deeper we delve into the smallest atom, the more we discover that all energy movements are associated with electrical charges immersed within a magnetic-flux field(electron) enclosure whose origins can be traced to the primordial flux plasma that was created by God at the beginning of the universe.
This led engineers/physicists to believe that molecules of a conductor such as copper on aluminium are made up of components that already have electrically charged particles that can assist in conducting electricity. Well, that will work quite well with DC in electrolysis and we know from cathode ray tubes that electrons can be accelerated across the vacuum gap between the negative emitter and anodes by a DC voltage with ease.
However, electricity moves at [or near] the speed of light a feat that DC electron mass particles cannot achieve without almost infinite energy if Einstein is correct. We know that a cable under the Atlantic can carry a signal at nearly the speed of light with very little loss of energy so the signal pulses must be in the magnetic flux field; as it can have nothing to do with electron particles. So how shall we explain AC electricity; that can not only flow along conductors but also vibrate through a fully primary to secondary isolation transformer core? We need an alternative model! Let us objectively consider a transformer and induction motor from the magnetic flux point of view.
Current wisdom for transformers considers that in AC the ampere-turns set up a flux in a two dimensional wave in the primary winding which vibrates the core magnetic domain molecules which then vibrate through the core and re-invert the electrons on the secondary side and thus the energy gets transferred
Well, that works mathematically but only uses 2 electro-magnetic dimensions instead of the 3 dimensions we suspect are present in reality. By experimenting using a compass around the core to plot the magnetic field around a core of a transformer or motor we find the compass is deflected in all sorts of directions and dips showing that the energy field is in fact three dimensional and not just two. [ See 3D magnoflux holistic theory of electricity on youtube presentation]
If we now consider the above locked rotor motor we can see that this is identical to the transformer although we would normally let the secondary winding spin; but the primary electromagnetic flux energy volume is the same whether it is used to energize a motor or a transformer.
Thus a three dimensional magnoflux field is required to support volumes of AC energy rather than by the two dimension electric volt and amp vectors used at present. As we know that voltage strength is measured per metre; so then the current must be complex and be 2 dimensional measured per square metre of loop area.
So we can use the right hand screw fingers rule used in generators and motors to envisage that the transformer also has a complex magnetic current area loop field which is at right angles to [but not opposite] to the voltage field.
Remember, the actual mechanical energy transfer is made in the motors airgap between the stator and rotor poles and the forces are purely magnetic. [we cant have a wooden rotor]
Faradays law of induction indicated that the electromagnetic motive force or EMF is proportional to the rate of change of flux at right angles BUT it also curls the magnoflux around into a volume of massless energy.
This new magnoflux concept leads to understanding that complex current [I] is an area of magnetic current loop. We need to envisage this magnetic current area as being comprised of inductive magnetic excitation current in the x direction and a set conductor capacitive charge parameter current in the y direction.
So complex current is equal to the square root of the product of the two parts of current Ix and Iy. If this current area is then made to move by applying a voltage in the z direction we shall then have a 3D volume of magnoflux energy in joules/second per cubic metre or EM massless energy with a characteristic electromagnetic spectrum energy density.
See attach diagram 3dloopforward.jpeg below
The only remaining problem to address is that of imaginary reactive power normally measured in power plants in var's. Well, it turns out that for real energy or power we need an equal amount of inductive excitation current and capacitive conductor parameter current at right angles to each other. So if an AC current of say 4 amps is made up of 4 amps inductive and 4 amps capacitive then the square root of the current area is 4 amps real which if attracted forward by a positive voltage at right angles will represent real energy. If current area is rectangular then only the root of the square of the minimum side will be real energy the remainder being imaginary power.
See diagram magampsarea.jpeg below
To conclude, 3D magnoflux energy can be measured by the electromagnetic density/volume formula E/m 3 = root IxjIy*j 2Vz*Tan 45 degrees in Joules per second or Watts per cubic metre, at a precise position x,y,z in space.
This formula can be simplified to E=V*I*Cos 0 on the assumption that current I is numeric only and Tan45 < 1 = cos 0
Eulers fomula in wikipedia shows a clear picture of how a magnoflux tunnel is formed and occupied by a string of photons of light helixing forward inside the tube. It should be noted that the resultant 3D Sin wave is formed by the 4 tips of the current area loop which is square for DC but may be rectangular for AC magnoflux vibrations